Farming in India is a hectic task, India has some one hundred and fifty million farmers who directly own land and use it for farming. Since the industrial revolution in the 1800s, automation is only getting advanced to efficiently handle more sophisticated tasks and increase production. With increasing demands and shortage of labour across the globe, farming needs to be automated, where simple tasks costs a lot time.

Our Agricultural scientists has been researching and has been able to find the specific requirements regarding different crops i.e.

  • - Amount of moisture a crop needs,
  • - Crops suitable for a specific Soil and many others

But Farmers are not accesible to the technologies that can be used to solve these practically. These problems can be solved in a efficient way if right technology at low cost can be provided to farmers.


Moisture in a soil can be controlled via IoT. A simple module can help farmers to get the exact amount of moisture in the soil and set the desired moisture level according to their need. Using timer and conditions for starting on and off the water source.

A simple IoT - Soil Moisture Sensor needs to get configured with the Micro-controller Unit and programmed accordingly, it will change the whole system.

Soil Moisture Sensor can be used: -

  • Calculate the amount of moisture lost due to evaporation and plant uptake over time.
  • Determine the optimal soil moisture content for different plant species.
  • To monitor irrigation in greenhouses, keep an eye on the soil moisture content.
  • Boost the results of your Bottle Biology experiments.

Farmers can use less water and increase crop yield and quality by understanding the requirements for soil moisture conditions in their fields.

Moisture monitoring is effective in several ways: -

  • Both crops and plants need water in the soil as a vital nutrient.
  • Photosynthesis involves the presence of water.
  • The availability of water in the soil has a significant impact on crop production.
  • For plant growth, soil water is an essential carrier of soluble food nutrients.
  • Soil water assists in the control of soil temperatures.

Even Electricity can be saved if relay is attached to the circuit for switching on and off the motors or submersible (water source).

Building up this device will be really cheap and feasible to the current problem being faced by the farmers.


If a farmer can get the result of what kind of crop should he go ahead, with the current type of soil conditions he has, it can help him to decide for the next crop. IoT can help farmers to get the best results.

For getting the best outcome IoT sensor can Monitor: -

  • Solar – Photosynthetically active radiation.
  • Solar – UV.
  • Solar – Shortwave.

Solar radiation has a significant effect on plant growth, and IoT allows you to monitor solar levels in order to spot patterns and trends.

Also, Plant growth is affected by rainfall/precipitation, wind, humidity, and atmospheric pressure. And weather devices integrated with soil sensors will provide a 360 degree view of farming operations.

IoT sensor for weather can determine :-

  • Precipitation (optical and tipping bucket measurements).
  • Temperature.
  • Humidity.
  • Air pressure.
  • Wind speed.
  • Wind direction.

To determine the soil conditions we have NPK soil sensors, these sensors can be used to determine the key nutrients in the soil. NPK stands for N- Nitrogen, P- Phosphorus, K- Potassium.

These NPK sensors can effectively measure: -

  • Nitrogen
  • Phosphorous
  • Potassium
  • pH
  • EC
  • Temperature
  • Moisture

All the data gathered using these sensors can be effectively managed by AI to produce the best outcome.

Benifits of Smart Farming: -

  • Increase in the production.
  • Water Conservation
  • Real-Time Data and Production insight
  • Lowered Operation cost
  • Remote Monitoring

When it comes to the Internet of Things, farming has a wide variety of applications. The imminent application of technology has potential to successfully manage the risk and waste associated with conventional farming methods. Farmers can easily diagnose areas by detecting fertility and conditions in order to reliably forecast potential yields.

Desirablity: -

Both solutions we talked about are desired in Indian Farming system since farmers face a huge issue regarding these activities.

Since it saves their operational cost overheads to a great extent, it will have a great demand and desirability by the farmers.

Feasibility: -

This problem is faced by the farmers from a very long time and no solutions are currently available with them. To solve this problem the IoT product made from integration of the sensors we talked about can be offered at low cost and low maintained.

Opportunity: -

New Business opportunity

Less cost of implementation

Sustainable environment

Profit for both buyer and seller

Future of Smart Farming

The chances are good that smart farming would have a significant impact on agriculture. In both developing and developed countries, smart farming is expected to bridge the gap between large and small-scale farmers. The use of technology in agriculture has been greatly aided by technological advancements, the rise of the internet of things, and the advent of smartphones. Different countries recognise the value of these innovations, which explains why most countries want to encourage the use of smart farming techniques.

Smart farming is obviously a great farming idea that, when properly applied, can help farmers reap a variety of benefits, including increased production, higher quality, and lower costs. Such creativity, on the other hand, necessitates money, expertise, and technical skills. You don't need to spend a lot of money on smart farming because you can start with only one system or technology and scale up later. The bottom line is that, while smart farming is relevant in agriculture and promises higher yields, it is wise to undertake comprehensive research on the best strategies that match with your farming goals and needs.

References: -