During pandemic, our Frontline Covid Warriors (Doctor and Nurses) were working Day and Night to save lives. Monitoring health of patients was one of the tasks for healthcare workers.

IoT have the capability of reducing their workload and helping them to monitor the real time status of patients without being in physical contact with the patients, reducing their chances to get themselves infected. This would even help to monitor the patients who are quarantined at their homes.

When a Patient is under monitoring usually these factors are observed: -

  • Heart Rate
  • Body Temperature
  • Oxygen Level in blood
  • Blood pressure

These tasks can be automated to reduce the workload of healthcare workers and making them ready even for the worst scenario since Covid cases are rising again in our country.


The sound of a person's heartbeat is the contraction or expansion of the valves in his or her heart as they force blood from one area to another. The heartbeat rate is the number of times the heart beats per minute (BPM), and the pulse is the heartbeat that can be felt in any artery close to the skin.

The optical power variation as light is dispersed or absorbed during its path through the blood as the heartbeat changes can be used to measure heart rate. There are several sensors available in market that can help to monitor the heart rate. A light-emitting diode and a detector, such as a light-detecting resistor or a photodiode, make up a simple heartbeat sensor. The flow of blood to various parts of the body varies because of the heartbeat pulses. When tissue is illuminated by the light source, such as light emitted by the led, the light either reflects (as in finger tissue) or transmits (earlobe). The blood absorbs some of the light, and the light detector receives the transmitted or reflected light. The amount of light absorbed is determined by the tissue's blood volume. The detector's output is an electrical signal that is proportional to the rate of the heartbeat.


Similarly, to Heart Rate sensors there are also several body temperature sensing devices which have accuracy up to 0.1 degree and can be used to detect real time body temperature of patients.


This pandemic adversely effected the oxygen level in blood which resulted in several deaths just because oxygen level in blood was not constantly measured.

IoT offers a sensor to detect the oxygen level in blood making it possible for doctors to constantly measure the real time oxygen level in blood so that patients can be provided with oxygen whenever oxygen level is detected below the normal.

Oxygen level sensors are often available with heartbeat sensors, i.e. only one sensor can be used to detect oxygen as well as pulse.


Blood pressure abnormality is a common disease which most of the population is suffering from. If not monitored regularly it can result in several heart diseases and even death due to Heart attack in extreme cases.There are several sensors to monitor blood pressure.


TThe sensors discussed above if used in effective manner for making a perfect integration can reduce the workload of healthcare workers and save lives.

A Module consisting of Heart-Rate sensor, Body Temperature sensor, Blood Oxygen Level Sensor and blood pressure sensor integrated with a microprocessor can display and notify the doctors about the real time health of certain patient. This module will be inexpensive to build and can solve a huge problem being faced by frontline workers, not only it will reduce their workload but also, they do not need to be in regular physical contact with infected patients which will reduce their chances of getting themselves infected.

The problem of shortage of beds in hospitals for the patients will be solved as Daily cases of Covid are again rising day by day.

This device can help them to stay quarantined at their homes and get the medical attention when required.

Real time data can be sent over the cloud so that doctors can check the change in health condition of every patient using this device. Even an immediate notification or voice message can be delivered via this module if the patients require immediate attention.